There is nothing strange in the fact that almost immediately after the appearance of first TV the picture is only in black and white tones, scientists have pondered over color television. And indeed, we are the world is too beautiful to see only in shades of gray. Our grandparents tried to watch their TV sets, using three-color film, setting it in front of the screen
The idea of color television was born in the late nineteenth century. She belongs to the Russian inventor engineer-technologist Alexander Polumordvinov. It was he who in 1900 he received a patent for the original color television system similar to the modern (in total there are about 25 projects of color). Polumordvinov offered a real color television system, which, like the modern system of color television was based on the three-component theory of color vision Lomonosov—young—Helmholtz
The idea was that using only three colors (color filter) you can get a perfectly normal color image with all colors. This principle (red-blue-green) is used to this day
For the decomposition of an image he proposed to use two disks rotating on parallel axes at different speeds. In one disc along radial lines from the center to the edge of the circle cut a slit and another slit was made in the form of a logarithmic or Archimedean spiral. The number of cracks on the discs is chosen a multiple of three, the number of primary colors.
At the intersection of cracks formed through hole rhombic shape, which served as the deploy element during the rotation of the disks. To obtain the signal color images, the inventor has proposed to close the gap in one of the disks sequentially red, green and violet filters. Passing through the rhombic hole of the light into an electrical signal using selenium photocell.
Between the optical transmitted projection image and photocell at each moment of time there was only one hole closed by a filter of the same color. When this hole is moved over the image frame, with the opposite edge rolled in the next hole closed by a filter of a different color, are offset by the width of the gap
Over a color television system as actively worked Zworykin, I. A. Adamar and many others, however, the practical implementation of the project occurred only in 50-e years, it was only experiments. The first color TV with a manual scan CBS RX-40 was released in the U.S. by RCA
The screen size was approximately 14х10 cm, in front of him was a special disc with color filters which is rotated by the synchronized motor. The quality of the "color" image was, to put it mildly, a very weak 1954 year in Leningrad was released the first Soviet television receiver a black-and-white image, mechanically obtaining a color rainbow
The main difference was that the rotating disc with filters and motor were already inside the case. These TVs also used the outer plastic magnifying lens filled with distilled water. The picture quality can be estimated on the pictures below
The futility of mechanically producing the color was obvious, so parallel were the development of color picture tube with fully electronic scanning and obtaining colour. The first mask color CRT with three separate e-guns mounted relative to each other at 120° was developed in the US in 1950s d ( the tube with the Delta-shaped arrangement of guns)
Three electron beam out of the three "guns" (cathode), focused in "the mask" and fell to the screen of the CRT, which was covered with a mosaic phosphor under the action of beam segments glowed red, blue and green colors. Here's how it looked:
First with a color TV kinescope was released Westinghouse. A few weeks later, RCA introduced its TV camera – model CT-100. It costs US $ 1000 (at the time, the money is not small). This model was equipped with 15 inch screen. Several later models have been developed with diagonals of 19 and 21 inches.
With him began the era of color picture tubes and color television of the present. Slowly grew the diagonal, the TV has acquired additional functions and features. In the 60-ies there appeared a new experimental modelrainbow", "Tempo and other
In the USSR mass production and sales of color TVs started in the 70-ies. Many people remember the first "Electrons" with a diagonal of 59cm and size with the floor of the Cabinet (775х550х550 mm, weight 65 kg). At that time the TV was part of the interior of the room or the house, the body was covered with valuable wood species and varnished. And how much more could the top to put on it!!!
I remember the TV repair, and who has not seen them from the inside, please. Space is inside virtually no. On the left is the huge and heavy transformer, unit settings, switch channels and radio, below - the condenser unit and block colour on the right is the most powerful and dangerous part - the unit scans the flyback transformer and the high voltage lamps
Those TVs in the beginning could only accept meter range, the UHF channels came a little late for their appointment were issued by the special attachment that converts the UHF channels in one metre, and then the first blocks: CDS that lasted almost unchanged for 20 years (mid-90s)
The next revolutionary step in the development of color TVs is a rejection of the lamps and the transition to transistors and their Assembly, called chips, read about it in the following article: modern TVs with CRT (picture tube)