The answers to these questions, You will learn from the materials of the article
We are so used to seeing the world around us is three-dimensional, that we sometimes forget what "fun" is not available to all. Animals that are not predators tend to have good peripheral vision. Their eyes are on the sides of the head, which gives them the ability to quickly spot danger and escape. But the "miracle" called Chameleon, in addition to its unique ability to change the color of the body, masquerading as the environment has two completely independent of the eye that allows you to see both what's ahead and what's behind
But those who are accustomed to hunt, the eyes are different: they are located in front, this location allows you to see the world in "3D", assuming of course that both eyes are "working". Thanks to this arrangement, it becomes possible not only to see objects three-dimensional, but the distance estimation between the items or goal that is widely used by all the "hunters" of the animal world, and so are we
Each eye sees the object "in its" from your "side", and the closer is the object, so this difference is substantial, if the subject is too far, the images received by both eyes are almost identical. The greater the distance between the eyes, the greater the perception of the volume and distance the brain is capable of their owner
The structure of the eye and method of "recording image", if you do not go into anatomical details, the same as in any camera or camcorder: there are "lens" (the lens) with adjustable focus and "matrix (retina), which is projected inverted (!) image. The retina consists of "cones" and "sticks" for taking black-and-white image in low light (night mode) and bright colored.
Eachelement" the matrix is "connected" to their nerve ending, burning of which sends the information into our mainframe brain. Whats more - science is not known, however, the brain is able to combine information from both "camera" (eye) in one integral three-dimensional image
Should we close one eye and not how much, can not be considered, however, the brain is able to "build" a complete picture of myself, this is based on a 3D effects. Things like shade or partial overlap of one subject second, give your brain information about their possible mutual arrangement:
If we add the effect of movement, we already "see" all "3D", and it is absolutely unimportant, we look at the video with one eye or two, although it's just the illusion of volume For the correct estimation of the distance to each object, we use a constructive capability of our eyes, as the convergence: the ability to horizontal displacement (towards the nose ). This function allows you to determine the distance to the "target" and see that one object is further than the other
If our eyes always looked strictly parallel, then all the items within one or two meters, we would have seemed vague or, more accurately, to dual. Don't believe? Pull your thumb in front of the nose and focus your eyes on it, and now, shift your gaze to the view outside the window (when the eye almost parallel), how many fingers you see?, - that's right, two
In order for the images received by each eye separately, do not "double vision", the eyes converge to a "point of focus": the subject in which we are looking at the moment - everything else is either a blur, or ghosting. Even screwing up one eye, we are unable to "focus" the panorama outside the window and our fingers.
Who has worked with cameras, and normal cameras or cameras, he remembers about this concept as depth of field - the portion of the distance at which objects are "in focus", that is, we seem to be sharp and clear contours. Our eye - exactly the same "short throw lens": we can see in focus all that far away, almost regardless of the distance, but what is the subject closer, the less depth of field and our eyes are constantly having to "readjust" to the object in question. If between objects, which we see less than a meter, even a distance of 5-10 cm is already playing the role of
Such "selectivity" of our eyes sets a very difficult task for those who are trying artificially to recreate the volume because, in addition to shooting object dual cameras, you also need to provide correct distance between them to come up with "focal point" and make sure that every eye can see it image that for him designed
A pioneer in the field create the illusion of volume (three-dimensional image) was a Dutch Samuel van Hoogstraten (1627-1678), a student Rembrandt, an artist who has learned to convey the effect of depth due to the masterful manipulation of the laws of Central perspective, lighting effects and creating an anamorphic-distorted images inside.
His famous "boxes for peeping" was a real boxes, which were expertly painted five of the six panels, all the elements were traced to the smallest details, so looking inside, the viewer is plunged into the illusion of deep perspective
Knowledge and understanding of the basic laws of the illusion of spatial depth, allowed such famous masters as the Flemish Cornelis Norbertus, Geisbrecht (which became a court painter), Grigory Teplov (founder of the genre are observed in Russia) and many others to achieve in their normal flat pictures just stunning effects. You see, the brain refuses to believe that it is common "flat" painted picture:
In the distant 1833 year, Professor of the London Royal College of Charles Winston constructs a mirror stereoscope allows you to see three-dimensional image using two original images with an offset.
Pictures were in every sense of the word - Charles Winston draws them himself. The first figure shows the principle of mirror stereoscope: the two images are placed on the end areas, in the middle of the device - two mirrors, angled at 45 degrees to the image and the viewer's eyes. Thanks to this arrangement, if observed from up close, each eye saw only the reflection of the image, which was designed
With the invention of the Louis Daguerre photo in 1839 year (six years after the opening of Whitstone) and release in 1844 year, Ludwig Moser stereoscopic camera, it became possible to consider in stereo not only draw pictures, but also pictures
Mirror stereoscope Wheatstone was quite bulky compared to newer and portable version, proposed by sir David Brewster in 1849 year, removing the mirrors, he used a pair of magnifying lenses arranged on the normal distance between human eyes (about 65 mm), allows you to present right and left eye two independent images of the same subject.
In 1861 once a year Oliver Wendell Holmes - American poet and Professor of anatomy and physiology at Harvard, a big fan of volume images, developed and presented one of the most popular model of the stereoscope, which could be not only portable, but also "folding"
With the appearance in the sale of stereoscopic cameras, the process of making and viewing photographs, slides and transparencies with the volume effect has become more accessible and popular, the limit was only one thing: it was impossible to consider such a photo of a large company together, each viewer was required stereoscope
Mirror stereoscope - easy and convenient design, allowing you to enjoy stereoscopic effect without much strain to the eyes. The principle is simple: two pairs of mirrors create an imitation of the natural direction of view of the image:
Images with different optical effects often referred to as optical illusions, their principle is built on the knowledge of the laws of physics, good game color transitions, lines and secrets of the perception of our eyes and brain, so I invite you to visit the section Optical illusions and Stereogram that located here, on our website
This, perhaps, the first part of the article can finish, because it is clear what to watch fixed volumetric images is certainly great to watch the whole movies in 3D, but still not alone, but with friends or the whole family - even better, so there is 3D-format, three-dimensional image (part 2)